From the Dean's Report, 1908/1909
"One of the principal problems of the School is the maintenance of a school spirit among the students. This may seem of trivial importance compared with academic interests, but in the training of ministers it has exceptional significance, for nowhere else does a professional spirit (in the best sense of the term) count for so much as in the work which clergymen are called upon to do together. This indeed is one justification for the existence of a separate divinity school, the curriculum of which necessarily overlaps at many points that of the college, and at others is a legitimate extension of it. A half-century ago this was not the case, but with the changing attitude of theology, affecting both the subjects and the methods of professional study, the modern theological school has become of a piece with the college and the university. Consequently it has frequently been urged that, no valid reason now exists for maintaining a separate school of theology, but a sufficient, though not the only answer is the exceptional value to a clergyman of association during his years of preparation with those who are to be his co-laborers in ministerial work. Herein also lies one explanation of the reluctance of many divinity students to attend a non-denominational school of theology, instead of a school frequented by men who are to be their nearest professional associates. Having committed ourselves to the non-denominational principle, we are under special obligation to develop an esprit de corps among our students. This, however, constitutes for us an exceedingly difficult problem on account of the peculiar conditions of our School. Denominational schools attract students with similar habits of thought, coming from homes where the same religious papers are read and the same religious leaders are honored, and by reason of these common interests and traditions, fellowship is easy and natural. Our School, however, has a company of students representing many denominations, among whom these points of contact are lacking and unless denominational coteries are formed -- a remedy which would be highly deplorable -- the men are apt to hold aloof from one another. This tendency towards disintegration is aided by the diversified attractions of a great university and great city. Furthermore a large number of our students (20% last year) are married, and living, as they must, outside the Hall, are less easily drawn into the common life. Moreover, many attend the School for but a single year, and the comparatively large number of new-comers are with difficulty incorporated into the life of the School by the few students who holdover from year to year. In the ordinary theological school, with three classes, about two-thirds of the students in any given year were members of the school during the previous year, but with us the proportion is almost exactly reversed. During file past year only 37% of the students primarily registered with us had been members of the School the year before. This indicates the difficulty of maintaining the corporate life of the School. In addition many of our students are mature men, coming here to pursue advanced studies who are eager to use to the utmost the opportunity often long coveted and dearly purchased, of a year at Harvard, and therefore can give but little time and strength to sustain the common life of the School. For these. reasons the problem of maintaining a vigorous school spirit, important for every school of theology, is especially important and peculiarly difficult for us. So far we have not been able satisfactorily to solve it, but the Divinity Club has been exceedingly helpful and deserves sincere gratitude for its loyal devotion to the interests of the School."
In the manuscripts collection of Andover-Harvard Library is found the following photograph of the school gathered in 1895, together with a typewritten list identifying many in the photograph. An alphabetical list follows these two images, with links to brief biographical information and the person's position in the photograph.
1st row #9 : Allen, J. C. (Joseph Cady)
1st row #5 : Applebee, John Henry
3rd row #5 : Bennett, Frederick Marsh
4th row #1 : Borncamp, Edward (formerly John Edward Borncamp)
3rd row #1 : Bourne, Alexander Phoenix
1st row #8 : Brown, William Channing
4th row #14 : Coar, Arthur H
4th row #12 : Crooks, Charles Melvis
1st row #7 : Diller, Anna
1st row #10 : Eaton, Horace
2nd row #4 : Emerton, Ephraim
2nd row #5 : Everett, Charles Carroll
1st row #4 : Farwell, Herbert Cunningham
1st row #2 : Fox, John Pierce
3rd row #7 : Gebauer, George Rudolph
4th row #11 : Greenman, Lyman Manchester
2nd row #8 : Hale, Edward
4th row #13 : Hall, Angelo
4th row #2 : Hannum, Henry Oliver
2nd row #2 : Hudson, Adelbert Lathrop
3rd row #3 : Hussey, Alfred Rodman
3rd row #2 : Jenkins, Burris Atkins
4th row #6 : Jones, Joseph Henry
4th row #10 : Jones, Silas
4th row #5 : Kerlin, Robert Thomas
1st row #11 : Langton, Joseph
2nd row #7 : Lyon, David Gordon
2nd row #3 : Morison, Robert Swain
1st row #3 : Parker, Charles Albert
1st row #6 : Peabody, Mrs.
2nd row #10 : Pressey, Edward Pearson
2nd row #1 : Rand, Edward Kennard
3rd row #8 : Reccord, Augustus Phineas
4th row #3 : Reed, Willard
4th row #9 : Robson, Kernan
3rd row #4 : Rowlinson, Carlos Carson
1st row #1 : Starbuck, Edwin Diller (formerly Edwin Eli Starbuck)
4th row #8 : Stearns, Wallace Nelson
2nd row #6 : Thayer, Joseph Henry
4th row #4 : Wilcomb, Chester James
3rd row #6 : Wood, Earl Boyton
1st row #12 : Wright, Henry Collier
This biographical information comes from various sources. The General Catalogue of the Divinity School of Harvard University (Cambridge: The University, 1920) is the main source of information for all students who attended the Divinity School through the 1919/20 academic year. Unitarian ministers were also researched through obituaries and files in the Manuscripts and Archives collection. Additional sources for some include American National Biography (edited by John A. Garraty and Mark C. Carnes; New York : Oxford University Press, 1999; noted as ANB) and Who Was Who (New York, etc.: St. Martin's Press, etc.; noted as WWW).
Top row (right to left):
Henry Collier Wright (Methodist). Wright was born in Le Roy, Ohio, on August 29, 1868. After attending the Divinity School until 1896, Wright was ordained a deacon and subsequently served in Austin, Minnesota, Dubuque, Iowa, St. Paul, Minnesota, Cincinnati, Ohio. He received a PhD from Boston University in 1900. Wright also served with the Russell Sage Foundation and was the First Deputy Commissioner of the Department of Public Charities in New York City. As a sociologist, he authored numerous books including Bossism in Cincinnati (1906) and The American City (1915). He died in 1935. [WWW]
Joseph Langton (Presbyterian). Langton was born in Watertown, New York, on May 5, 1862. After receiving an AM at Harvard in 1896, he was ordained and served in Quebec; Londonderry, New Hampshire; Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania; and Wetonka, South Dakota.
Horace Eaton (Unitarian). Eaton was born in Quincy, Massachusetts, on October 13, 1871. After receiving his PhD from Harvard in 1900, Eaton taught German and English at the University of Vermont and, later, English at Syracuse University. He edited The Diary of Thomas De Quincey for 1803. He died in 1958. [WWW]
Joseph Cady Allen (Unitarian). Allen was born in Rochester, New York, on January 30, 1869. After attending the Divinity School for one year, Allen was ordained and served in Winona, Michigan; Redlands, California; Scituate, Massachusetts; Yarmouth, Maine; Walpole and Hubbardston, Massachusetts; Charlestown, New Hampshire; Farmington, Maine; Genesco, Illinois (following a brief stint as a troubadoring Shakespearean actor in the British Isles); Rowe, Massachusetts; and Bernardston, Massachusetts. He died in 1955.
William Channing Brown (Unitarian). Brown was born in Sherborn, Massachusetts, on March 7, 1868. After attending the Divinity School for one year, Brown served parishes in Gardner, Massachusetts (where he was ordained in 1895) Hubbardston, Massachusetts (1895-98), Littleton, Massachusetts (1898-1904); Wheeling, West Virginia (1924-28); and Sudbury. Massachusetts (1929-35). Brown also was appointed Field Secretary of the Unitarian Universalist Association, a position he held from 1904-23. Brown, at the time the oldest minister in the Unitarian Universalist Association and a minister emeritus in Littleton, Massachusetts, died in 1967 at the age of 100. [WWW]
Anna Diller [Starbuck] Anna Diller was the daughter of Isaac Diller. Almost blind from spiral meningitis as a young girl, she was sent to a private school in Ontario, Canada, where she developed a special interest in music. She later studied in Leipzig with Hershift, a student of Franz Lizst, and was one of the first to use the "sensitive touch" technique of Leschetizky. She was one of the first two Radcliffe women to take courses at Harvard (under William James, Josiah Royce, and Dean C.C. Everett). She was married in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, on August 5, 1896, to Edwin Starbuck (who changed his middle name to her maiden name), and had eight children. She taught in the Music Department of the University of Iowa from about 1913 until her death on February 12, 1929. [For bibliography, see under Starbuck]
Second row from top (right to left):
Edward Pearson Pressey (Unitarian). Pressey was born in Salem, New Hampshire, on June 28, 1869. After attending the Divinity School for two years, Pressey was ordained and served in Montague and Turners Falls, Massachusetts. At Montague he founded New Clairvaux, a utopian community based on the "Arts and Crafts" ideal. He advocated a return to the self-sufficient, pre-industrial age in which the dignity of labor was revived and service to all honored. The community never consisted of much more than six families, students, and apprentices who shared common work areas but had privately owned residences. In 1910 the New Clairvaux Press under Carl Rollins published his History of Montague. His community, however, fragmented. He left Montague in 1914 to farm in Vermont and finally settled in Schenectady, New York, where he became Associated Press editor of the Schenectady Gazette. He died in 1928.
[Falino, Jeannine. "The Monastic Ideal in Rural Massachusetts: Edward Pearson Pressey and New Clairvaux" in The Substance of Style: Perspectives on the American Arts and Crafts Movement, edited by Bert Denker (Winterthur, Delaware: Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum; Hanover and London: Distributed by University Press of New England, 1996). Corrections to parts of this information from David R. Drake.]
Edward Hale (Unitarian). Hale was born in Northampton, Massachusetts, on February 22, 1858. After graduating from Harvard (1879), he lived in Rome, Italy, for two years and then studied architecture in the office of H. H. Richardson. After graduating from Harvard Divinity School in 1886, he served as Associate Minister of the South Congregational Church in Boston and then as Minister in Orange, New Jersey. He was Assistant (1886-96), Instructor (1896-97), and Associate Professor (1897-1906) of Homiletics at the Divinity School. He was minister of the First Church of Chestnut Hill from 1897 until his death in 1918.
Third row from top (right to left):
Augustus Phineas Reccord (Unitarian). Reccord was born in Acushnet, Massachusetts, on February 14, 1870. After graduating from Brown University and the Divinity School, Reccord was ordained and served in Chelsea, Massachusetts; Cambridge, Massachusetts; Newport, Rhode Island; Springfield, Massachusetts; and Detroit, Michigan. Reccord, a Minister Emeritus at parishes in Grosse Point and Detroit, Michigan, served in the active Unitarian ministry for 44 years, after which he served informally with parishes in Montreal and Louisville, Kentucky. He died in 1946. [WWW]
George Rudolph Gebauer (Unitarian). Gebauer was born in Schmardt, Germany, on March 17, 1857. After graduating from the Gymnasium in Brieg and serving in the army for one year, he emigrated to Philadelphia where an uncle was a Reformed pastor. Before entering the Divinity School, he was in business in the West. He served churches in Cincinnati, Ohio; Alton, Illinois; Duluth, Minnesota; Keokuk, Iowa; and Pittsburg (Northside), Pennsylvania. He died in 1930.
Earl Boyton Wood (Congregationalist). Wood was born in Bangor, Maine, on January 7, 1871. After attending the Divinity School, Wood was ordained and served in Lovell and Fort Fairfield, Maine. He died in 1899.
Frederick Marsh Bennett (Unitarian). Bennet was born in Woodstock, Ohio, on April 6. 1866. After receiving his AM from Harvard in 1895, he was ordained and served in Carthage, Missouri; Keokuk, Iowa; Lawrence, Kansas; Salt Lake City, Utah; and Youngstown, Ohio. Bennet also served as a Unitarian Conference Field Agent for the Middle States and Canada. He died in 1929.
Carlos Carson Rowlinson (Disciples). Rowlinson was born in Kent, Indiana, on May 5, 1895. After attending Harvard, he was ordained and served in Jefferson City, Missouri; Cedar Rapids, Iowa; Marshalltown, Iowa; Indianapolis, Indiana; Kenton, Ohio; Iowa City, Iowa; and La Crosse, Wisconsin.
Fourth row from top (right to left):
Angelo Hall (Unitarian). Hall was born in Washington, DC (Georgetown), on December 16, 1868. After attending Harvard, he was ordained and served in Turners Falls, Massachusetts, and Andover, New Hampshire. Later, Hall served as Instructor and then Professor of Mathematics at the U.S. Naval Academy. He died in 1922.
Charles Melvin Crooks (Congregationalist). Crooks was born in Van Wert County, Ohio, on September 27, 1870. He served churches in these Massachusetts cities: Colrain, Grafton, Worcester, Brockton, and Barre. He died in 1962.
Silas Jones (Disciples). Jones was born in Owingsville, Kentucky, on February 11, 1867. After attending the Divinity School for two years, Jones was ordained and served in Newman and Sterling, Illinois. Later, Jones served as Professor of Sacred Literature and Philosophy at Eureka College.
Bottom row (right to left):
Arthur H. Coar (Unitarian). Coar was born in Yonkers, New York, on August 26, 1872. After receiving his AM from Harvard in 1898, Coar was ordained and served in Ellsworth, Maine; Farmington, Maine; Holyoke and Amherst, Massachusetts; Elizabeth, New Jersey; and Pembroke, Massachusetts. He died in 1950.
Lyman Manchester Greenman (Unitarian). Greenman was born in Chelsea, Massachusetts, on May 10, 1870. After attending the Divinity School for two years, he was ordained and served in Grafton, Massachusetts; Gloucester, Massachusetts; Yonkers, New York; New Brighton, New York; and Quincy, Illinois.
Kernan Robson. Robson was born in North Greenfield, Ohio, on September 22, 1892. After attending the Divinity School for one year, he became Professor of English language and Literature at the University of South Dakota, 1895-1897.
Top row (left to right):
Edwin Diller Starbuck. Edwin Diller Starbuck was born in Guilford Township, Indiana, on February 20, 1866. Starbuck was raised in the Quaker tradition, though by early adulthood he had developed a highly critical view of traditional Christian dogma. Investigating Christian belief, however, was more for Starbuck than a personal endeavor.
After receiving an AB degree in 1890 from Indiana University, Starbuck enrolled at Harvard to study religion, philosophy and psychology. While at Harvard, Starbuck engaged in independent research in what is now called the psychology of religion. Having developed various questionnaires "measuring" individual religious experience, Starbuck, largely outside of formal instruction, linked religious experience and psychology, a hitherto unknown field of study. In Dean Everett's class in Systematic Theology (which he remembered in his essay "Religion's Use of Me"), he met Anna Maria Diller, a fellow student, whom he married in 1896.
[p. 226] During the winter of 1894-5, about the middle of the second year of the study, some clear and significant consistencies began to appear, particularly in the conversion study: the piling up of age-frequencies near pubescence; likenesses of the phenomena of conversion and those attending the breaking of habits; the signs of the dissociation of personality and its recentering, not unlike the split-personality experiences described by James, Prince, and Janet; and so on through a considerable list. Dean Everett was sufficiently interested to request a report before his class in the philosophy of religion made up of about sixty graduate students which included' women as well as men, since Radcliffe students were that year for the first time admitted to graduate courses at Harvard. The presentation was simple and factual and unargumentative. The discussion was then thrown open to the class. That occasion was a sort of christening ceremony for the babe newly born into the family of academic subjects. Some quite hot water was poured into the baptismal font. The first douse of it came from Edward Borncamp, who rose, his face white with emotion. His first sentence, fervid with the warmth of deep conviction, was, "It's all a lie!" Laughter broke out there in that dignified classroom. There was also a pouring of friendly waters into the font, and words of commendation for this new babe. Of course, the attempted damnation of the infant by the first speaker was because its swaddling clothes were only the filthy rags of earthly psychology, [p.227] ill-becoming the sacredness of religion. The charming Dean, high priest on that occasion, had words of encouragement for the father of the child, and for the offspring itself. There in that class sat Anna Diller, profound student, musician-artist. She warmed towards it and took it to her bosom as she was later to take the whole oncoming Starbuck brood.
Starbuck's early work at Harvard elicited a mixed response, with some claiming that psychology and religion "have nothing to do with one each other." Importantly, one of Starbuck's chief supporters was William James, who incorporated Starbuck's findings in The Varieties of Religious Experience (1902). After receiving his AM from Harvard in 1895, Starbuck enrolled in PhD studies at Clark University. After receiving his PhD two years later, Starbuck published his The Psychology of Religion, the first text in the new field.
Starbuck spent much of his life teaching, holding positions at Stanford University (Assistant Professor of Education, 1897-1903), Earlham College (Professor of Education, 1904-06), the State University of Iowa (Professor of Philosophy, 1906-30), and the University of California (Professor of Philosophy and Psychology). Between his time at Stanford and Earlham, Starbuck studied in Germany under Ernst Meumann, a leading scholar in the new field of educational psychology. After his time in Germany, Starbuck concentrated on "character education," including work with the American Unitarian Association on religious education curricula.
[ANB; Starbuck, Edwin, "Religion's Use of Me" in Religion in Transition, edited by Vergilius Ferm (New York: Macmillan. 1937, esp. p. 222-227); Booth, Howard J. Edwin Diller Starbuck: Pioneer in the Psychology of Religion (Washington, D.C. : University Press of America, 1981).]
Jon Pierce Fox. Born in Dorchester on November 5, 1872, Fox received his AB from Harvard in 1894 and attended the Divinity School for one year. Fox became a municipal consultant, specializing in transportation, zoning and city planning, primarily in New York, Pennsylvania, and Massachusetts. Beginning in 1928, Fox served as a consultant on the restoration of Colonial Williamsburg. [WWW]
Charles Albert Parker (Baptist). Parker was born in Ludlow, Maine, on January 8, 1869. After graduating from Brown (AB and AM) and the Rochester Theological Seminary, Parker attended the Divinity School for almost two years and was ordained in 1889. After ordination, he served in Lake City, Colorado, and Carver, Quincy, Los Gatos, San Jose, and Redwood City (these in California).
Herbert Cunningham Farwell (Unitarian). Farwell was born in Clinton, Massachusetts, on November 5, 1868 and was ordained on June 18, 1899. He was Superintendent of the Salem Fraternity ("The Oldest American Boys Club") for 56 years beginning in 1899. He died in 1954.
John Henry Applebee (Unitarian). Applebee was born in Davenport, England, on March 12, 1868. The son of a Methodist then Unitarian minister, Applebee moved to the United States and graduated from Meadville (Chicago) in 1894. After attending the Divinity School for one year, Applebee was ordained and served parishes in Buffalo, New York; West Roxbury, Massachusetts; Attleborough, Massachusetts; and Syracuse, New York. Applebee also served in the American Red Cross Home Services during World War I.
Second row from the top (left to right):
Edward Kennard Rand . Rand was born in Boston on December 20, 1871 and received his AB (1894) and AM (1895) from Harvard and his PhD from the University of Munich (1900). Rand held three positions at Harvard throughout his career: Instructor of Latin (1901-06), Assistant Professor of Latin (1906-09) and Professor of Latin (1909-42; Pope Professor of Latin after 1931). He served as annual professor and later trustee and life member of the American Academy of Rome. He was president of the American Philological Association and one of the founders of the Mediaeval Academy of America, serving as its first president and the editor of the first three volumes of its journal, Speculum, for which he suggested the name. He became a high church Anglican and had passed the collection plate at the Church of the Advent on the morning of the Sunday he died in 1945. In recognition of his scholarship and lifelong devotion to France, he was posthumously awarded the degree of Docteur de l'Université by the University of Paris. His works included Founders of the Middle Ages (1928), The Magical Art of Virgil (1931), and the Building of Eternal Rome (1943). [ANB]
Adelbert Lathrop Hudson (Unitarian). Lathrop was born on November 12, 1853, in Richland, New York, and received an LLB. from the University of Iowa. He practiced law for 17 years, first as the County Attorney in Algona, Iowa, and then in 1883 with a firm in Sioux City, Iowa. It was in Sioux City that, as a layman, he helped organize the First Unitarian Church in 1885. His interest in religion was so keen that he decided to study for the ministry. He received his AB (1893) from Harvard and graduated from the Divinity School in 1895. He was ordained in 1897 and served parishes in Salt Lake City, Utah; Buffalo, New York; Newton, Massachusetts, and Quincy, Massachusetts. In 1920, he became minister of the First Parish in Dorchester, Massachusetts, which he served until his death in 1938.
Robert Swain Morison (Unitarian). Morison was born in Milton, Massachusetts, on October 13, 1847. He graduated from Harvard College in 1869 and from the Divinity School in 1872. He was minister of the Independent Congregational Church in Meadville, Pennsylvania, from 1874 to 1878. He served as librarian (from 1889, emeritus after 1908) and secretary of the faculty (1893-1908) at the Divinity School. He died in 1925.
Third row from top (left to right):
Alexander Pheonix Bourne (Congregationalist). Bourne was born in New York on January 7, 1866. After receiving his AM from Harvard in 1895, Bourne was ordained and served parishes in Exeter, New Hampshire; Cambridge, Massachusetts, and Rochester, Massachusetts.
Burris Atkins Jenkins (Disciples) Born in Kansas City, Missouri, on October 2, 1869 Jenkins received his AM from Harvard in 1896. After, he was ordained and served parishes in Santa Barbara, California; Indianapolis, Indiana; Buffalo, New York; and Kansas City, Missouri. Jenkins also briefly served as Professor of the New Testament at the University of Indianapolis and as President of Kentucky University. He published numerous books and was also editor and publisher of The Kansas City Post (1919-1921) and publisher of The Christian (1926-1934). He died in 1945. [WWW]
Alfred Rodman Hussey (Unitarian). Born in New Bedford on March 22, 1869, Hussey received his AB from Harvard in 1894 and attended the Divinity School for one year in 1895. After, Hussey served parishes in West Roxbury; Massachusetts; Taunton, Massachusetts; Baltimore, Maryland; Lowell, Massachusetts; and Plymouth, Massachusetts (1921-39). From 1916 to 1930 he was the literary and book editor of The Christian Register. He died in 1947.
Fourth row from top (left to right):
Edward Borncamp (Episcopalian). Born in LeSueur, Minnesota, on November 7, 1868, Borncamp attended the Divinity School for just over one year. Ordained in Boston in 1897, he served parishes in Duxbury, Massachusetts; Boston, Massachusetts; and Winona, Minnesota.
Henry Oliver Hannum (Congregationalist). Born in Kasota, Minnesota, on October 19, 1871, Hannum attended the Divinity School for one year. He served parishes in Southwick, Boston, and Holyoke (these in Massachusetts), and Superior, Wisconsin. Hannum also briefly worked for the YMCA and the Interchurch World Movement.
Willard Reed (Unitarian). Born in Mount Vernon, New York, on June 26, 1876, Reed graduated from Harvard College and received his AM after study at the Divinity School in 1895. Reed spent much of his career as an educator, both as an administrator and teacher. In Massachusetts, Reed served at the Roxbury Latin School as well as the Browne and Nichols School. A local political activist, Reed sat on the Cambridge City Democratic Committee. After retirement from education, Reed returned to the ministry, informally serving parishes in the Cambridge area. Both his son, Capt. Willard J. Reed, 32, and grandson, John Reed Copeland, 18, were killed in World War II. Willard Reed died in 1944.
Robert Thomas Kerlin (Methodist). Kerlin was born in New Castle, Missouri, on March 22, 1866. After attending the Divinity School, Kerlin briefly served as the Chaplain for the 3rd Regular Missouri Volunteer Infantry. He taught English at a number of colleges, including the Virginia Military Institute (1910-21); the State Normal School in West Chester, Pennsylvania, (1922-27); Potomac State College in Keyser. West Virginia; and Western Maryland College. He published numerous books including Theocritus in English Literature (1909) and Negro Poets and Their Poems (1923). He died in 1950. [WWW]
Joseph Henry Jones (Unitarian). Jones was born in Holland, Virginia, October 22, 1869. After graduating from the Divinity school in 1898, he served churches in Providence, Rhode Island; St. Cloud, Minnesota; St. Joseph, Missouri; and Topeka, Kansas.
Wallace Nelson Stearns (Methodist). Born in Chagrin Falls, Ohio, on August 26, 1866, Stearns received his AB (1893) and AM (1897) from Harvard. He received a PhD from Boston University (1899) and held teaching and administrative positions at Ohio Wesleyan, Boston University, Northwestern University, University of Illinois, Wesley College, University of North Dakota, Fargo College, and McKendree College (Illinois). He published numerous works including Fragments of Graeco-Jewish Writers (1908). He died in 1934. [WWW]
Chester James Wilcomb (Baptist). Wilcomb was born in Chester, New Hampshire, on August 27, 1869. After receiving his AB from Harvard, Wilcomb continued his education at Columbia (AM 1897) and Union Theological Seminary (1898). Wilcomb was ordained in 1898 and briefly served a parish in Greenville, New Hampshire. He then taught at Dartmouth College and in Brooklyn, New York; San Rafael, California; and Riverside, California.